Drexel 4302

Drexel 4302, also known as the Sambrook Book based on an inscription from a former owner, Francis Sambrook, is a music manuscript containing vocal and keyboard music from Italian and British composers, documenting the transition from Renaissance to Baroque music. Though literature on the manuscript has assumed the copyist was Francis Tregian the Younger, recent analysis has demolished that hypothesis (not without some musicological contention).

Belonging to the New York Public Library, it forms part of the Music Division’s Drexel Collection, located at the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts. Following traditional library practice, its name is derived from its call number.

The origins of Drexel 4302 or reasons why it came into existence are unknown. For many years it was thought to have been copied by Francis Tregian the Younger during his incarceration in Fleet Prison from about 1608 until his death in 1618. Based on a physical analysis of the manuscript (and an analysis of writings on Tregian), Ruby Reid Thompson has shown that not only is this attribution extremely unlikely, but that the basis for the belief of Tregian’s to the manuscript was also very tenuous.

Thompson found that Drexel 4302 consists of original 257 folios. Five of these sheets are of high quality paper made by the Düring family of Basel, Switzerland. The remaining 252 folios were made by the Wendelin Riehel mill in Strasbourg. (Most of the paper used in English manuscripts can be traced to France and Italy, and to a lesser extent in the Rhine region including Basel and Strasbourg.) Beyond the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book, Egerton 3665 (in the British Library), and Mus. 510-514A in the Christ Church Library, Thompson found no other music manuscripts that used either of these papers. Expanding her search, she found use of these papers in England and its use on the continent was scarce. She found that three of Inigo Jones drawings used Düring paper with a similar (but not identical) watermark, all connected to the court and dating 1619-1624. Thompson concluded: „All the manuscripts containing such papers are found in documents relating to the cultural activities or the official business of the royal courts. Thus a corresponding connection may exist between the four music manuscripts [the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book, Egerton 3665, Mus. 510-514A and Drexel 4302] and the musical activities of the English court.

Originally of German Regal size (a standard used at the time), the height of the folios indicate they have been only slightly trimmed. Their height range from 405 millimetres (15.9 in) to 415 millimetres (16.3 in) and the width ranges from 268 millimetres (10.6 in) to 280 millimetres (11 in).

The manuscript has twenty-one gatherings. Ten of these are perfect (meaning that no leaves were removed or were added to the gathering), implying they were copied by professional copyists. The remaining eleven gatherings are now imperfect with diverse structures (meaning that leaves were removed or added). The outer leaves of all the gatherings show greater wear than the inner leaves, indicating that the gatherings were originally separate and used independently. Only later were they brought together and bound to create an aggregate volume.

Although many music manuscripts of this time are laid out page by page, the scores in Drexel 4302 are generally laid out across two facing pages. This means that a line of music will begin on a verso of a leaf and continue to the recto of the following leaf before continuing on the previous verso.

Until Thompson’s article, most writers assumed the final date of copying of the manuscript close to Tregian’s death. Since Thompson discredited the hypothesis of Tregian’s involvement, she suggested that an estimation of date need not be influenced by Tregian’s death date. Based on Persons‘ thesis, some works could have been copied from Il Parnasso published in Antwerp in 1613—a date that suggests an approximate time frame.

The earliest identified owner of Drexel 4302 was Francis Sambrook who inscribed his name on various parts of the manuscript, including the front cover. Exactly which Francis Sambrook this was is an open question. Edward F. Rimbault (a later owner) had written on the first page that Sambrook died in 1660 and was buried at Salisbury. But Bertram Schofield and Thurston Dart wrote that there was apparently another Francis Sambrook who was Clerk of Records to the Bishop of Salisbury Courts in 1662 to whom composer Henry Lawes left the compositions of his brother William Lawes. Exact identification awaits further investigation as there were several people named Francis Sambrook active during the mid-17th century.

Subsequent owners are known from their inscriptions on the manuscript’s initial pages. The first is signed „Dr. Allcock“ who Jerry C. Persons identifies as the organist and composer John Alcock (1715-1806). It reads: „All the following Music was wrote out of the Vatican (or Pope’s Library) at Rome.“ This is followed by a statement signed by „Rev. John Parker“: „I do not find any authority for this assertion by Dr. Alcock.“. Persons identifies Parker as the vicar of St. George’s, London, who „copied out madrigals for himself.“

It is not known how Edward F. Rimbault came to own the manuscript, although it is not surprising considering he owned many unique English manuscripts. After his death in 1876, it was listed in the catalog of his estate as lot 1379:

MOTETTS, ANTHEMS, MADRIGALS, and Instrumental Pieces…A very large collection in a thick folio volume, in the original binding, rebacked–Autographs of Francis Sambrook (ob. 1660), by whom the collection was probably transcribed, and John Alcock, 1745–Manuscript notes by Dr. Alcock, Rev. John Parker, and Dr. Rimbault, a few leaves damaged by damp

The manuscript was one of about 600 lots purchased by Philadelphia-born financier Joseph W. Drexel, who had already amassed a large music library. Upon Drexel’s death, he bequeathed his music library to The Lenox Library. When the Lenox Library merged with the Astor Library to become the New York Public Library, the Drexel Collection became the basis for one of its founding units, the Music Division. Today Drexel 4302 is part of the Drexel Collection in the Music Division, now located at the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts at Lincoln Center.

In discussing the handwriting, Thompson differentiates between abrupt and gradual changes of script (both indicating a different scribe). She noted thirty changes of script (seven sudden and twenty-three gradual). In conjunction with her analysis of Egerton 3665, she noted that Drexel 4302 shares nine scripts with that manuscript.

Because they believed that it was in the same hand as the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book and Egerton 3665, Schoefield and Dart thought Drexel 4302 should be considered a continuation of the latter. Thompson has shown that only nine scribal hands are shared between Drexel 4302 and Egerton 3665 (the cumulation of both indicate seventeen different hands) and that these hands are not the same as that of the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book.

Section contents:

Because many of the writings on Drexel 4302 appeared before Ruby Reid Thompson’s 1992 and 2001 articles discrediting a single copyist for Drexel 4302 and Egerton 3665, writers often made comparisons between the two manuscripts.

Much of the music from the early 17th century, whether printed or in manuscript, is available only in parts. Edward Lowinsky observed that Drexel 4302 (along with Egerton 3665 and R.M. 24 d.2 in the British Library) provided evidence for the dissemination of the new practice of using scores in early 17th century England.

Bertram Schofield and Thurston Dart noted that both Drexel 4302 and Egerton 3665 consist primarily of English and Italian madrigals. They observed that a marginal note in Egerton 3665 regarding the setting Italia mia („ex libris Henr. 8, circa annum 1520“) is the same note found in a marginal note of an anonymous motet of Drexel 4302 and conclude that the same source was used for the fantasies by Philip van Wilder.

Richard Charteris noted that one of the significant features of Drexel 4302 (and Egerton 3665) are the designations of the three composers named Alfonso Ferrabosco (Alfonso Ferrabosco the elder (1543–1588), Alfonso Ferrabosco the younger (1575–1628) and Alfonso Ferrabosco III (junior) (died 1652)). Both Egerton 3665 and Drexel 4302 indicate „il padre“ and „il figliuolo“ in titles and „Alfonso Ferrabosco senior“ and „Alfonso Ferrabosco junior“ for individual pieces.

In his study of the song Amarilli, mia bella and its transmission, Tim Carter noted the importance to Drexel 4302 of publications from the publishing firm of Phalèse. The firm was founded in the 16th century by Pierre Phalèse the Elder, whose sons continued it in the 17th century (at the time the manuscript would have been copied). Carter noted that all publications of composer Peter Philips were printed by Phalèse, and that he edited one of Phalèse’s anthologies, implying a close relationship between composer and the firm. These publications were significant sources to the copyists of Drexel 4302. Carter posits that the copyist of Drexel 4302 apparently knew Phalèse’s 1601 anthology because the manuscript includes arrangements of eight six-part madrigals from the publication.

Carter observed that both Drexel 4302 and Egerton 3665 were important to the transmission of „Amarilli, mia bella.“ The song was first published in Ghirlanda di madrigalia sei voci, di diversie eccellentissimi autori de nostri tempi, raccolta di giardini di fiori odoriferi musicali issued in 1601 by the Antwerp printer Pierre Phalèse the Younger (RISM 16015). Carter noted that the copyist of Drexel 4302 copied Amarilli, mia bella on pages 502-18 (nos. 105-15). This copyist created a three-part setting of the work by taking only three of the six parts. Carter observed that this procedure noting some „curious gaps“ in the voicing. Rather than copy out the slightly altered repeat, the copyist substituted repeat signs, resulting in an ending that Carter terms „unworkable.“

This list is based on the online RISM database (see External links below), Persons’s thesis, and an examination of the microfilm of the manuscript. With the exception of the initial heading, all subsequent headings are in the manuscript.

Explanation of column headings:

Giorgio Gaber (1961)

Giorgio Gaber è il primo album di Giorgio Gaber, pubblicato nel 1961.

Trattandosi del primo long playing di Gaber, già sulla scena da alcuni anni e con una produzione ormai variegata, esso doveva costituire, secondo i criteri della Casa discografica, una sorta di panoramica generale dell’artista, anche con registrazioni in diretta appositamente effettuate.

Nel disco sono perciò inclusi cinque brani già pubblicati su 45 giri nel biennio precedente (salvo Le strade di notte, uscita quasi in contemporanea all’album), quattro inediti (Una lettera, Il girasole rosso, Il borsellino e la valigia e La cartolina colorata, canzoni perlopiù presentate allora da Gaber nel recital Il Giorgio e la Maria) e nuove versioni di Una fetta di limone (già incisa insieme ad Enzo Jannacci nel duo i Due Corsari), Buonanotte tesoro e Benzina e cerini. Queste ultime due hanno entrambe una strofa in meno rispetto alle loro esecuzioni d’origine.

Sulla copertina è riportata la dicitura „Special“, caratteristica comune ad altri LP della Ricordi di quel periodo (come ad esempio il primo album di Gino Paoli, anch’esso diviso tra recenti successi da singolo e brani rifatti) costituiti a presentare più da vicino l’artista di turno, anche nella confezione, decisamente „deluxe“, con copertina in cartone spesso, impaginazione a libro, diverse fotografie e note all’interno, con un intervento diretto dello stesso artista.

Nel caso di Gaber, la copertina è curata da Daniele Usellini, mentre la presentazione al disco è di Franco Belli; sempre all’interno figura, appunto, un breve scritto di Gaber stesso, oltre ad un indice discografico delle canzoni sino ad allora pubblicate.

Il titolo è stato ristampato nel 1965 nella serie economica della Ricordi, con numero di catalogo MRP 9016, e con copertina diversa, non più apribile, che mantiene però la nota introduttiva originale di Gaber. Nel 2004 è uscita la prima (e a tutt’oggi unica) ristampa su CD, che riprende fronte e retro della prima edizione.

LATO A

LATO B

Armand Malitourne

Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en l’améliorant (comment ?) selon les recommandations des projets correspondants.

Pierre-Armand Malitourne (L’Aigle (Orne), 19 juillet 1796-Paris, 19 avril 1866) est un journaliste, critique littéraire et écrivain français.

Il fait ses études au collège d’Alençon.

Installé à Paris à partir de 1816, il obtient en 1819 un prix de l’Académie française pour son ouvrage Éloge de Lesage et débute dans La Quotidienne où il publie des articles périodiques. Sous le ministère Martignac, il participe au Messager des chambres puis, après la révolution de juillet 1830 devient rédacteur à La Charte de 1830. Il prend part aussi au Moniteur parisien, au Messager, au Constitutionnel, aux Nouvelles à la main (1841), à la Revue de Paris et à L’Artiste.

Il est inhumé au cimetière du Père-Lachaise.

Il participa aussi au Dictionnaire de la conversation (1826). On lui doit en outre une édition des œuvres choisies de Balzac (2 vol.1822) et des Œuvres de Rivarol (1852).

HashCode() (Java)

En el lenguaje de programación Java un HashCode es un identificador de 32 bits que se almacena en un Hash en la instancia de la clase. Toda clase debe proveer de un método hashCode() que permite recuperar el Hash Code asignado, por defecto, por la clase Object. El HashCode tiene una especial importancia para el rendimiento de las tablas hash y otras estructuras de datos que agrupan objetos en base al cálculo de los HashCode.
Todas las clases heredan de java.lang.Object un sistema básico para el uso de hash, aunque es común sobreescribir este para obtener una función hash que maneje de forma más especifica los datos contenidos.
Normalmente se sobrescribe el método para que se comporte de forma acorde a la que lo hace .equals(), es decir, si el método .equals() dice que dos objetos son iguales, estos han de tener el mismo valor hash.
No hay requisitos que obliguen a mantener el mismo hash en diferentes implementaciones de Java o ejecuciones, es más, aunque lo ideal es que no existan, no es fundamental que no existan colisiones de hash.

En las primeras versiones de Java, el hash code de un objeto String se calculaba con base en los primeros 16 dígitos, algo que resultaba muy ineficaz a la hora de implementar tablas hash, por lo que desde Java 1.2, el hash code se calcula con base en todos los elementos del String siguiendo la siguiente fórmula:

En este ejemplo se genera un hash code para un objeto Empleado basándonos en su ID, el hash code de su nombre y de su departamento. Cuanto más elaborada sea la función menos colisiones existirán en nuestro hash.

Rhododendron subg. Hymenanthes

Rhododendron subg. Hymenanthes is a subgenus of the genus Rhododendron, with a widespread distribution in the temperate Northern Hemisphere. The species are evergreen shrubs and small to medium-sized trees (up to 20 m tall), with medium-sized to large leaves (very large, over 40 cm long, in a few species). The flowers are large, produced in terminal trusses of 5-40 together.

The subgenus includes one section, Rhododendron sect. Ponticum, divided into 24 subsections and about 140 species. In 2005 the subgenus was expanded by adding section Pentanthera.

Section Ponticum (24 subsections)

Section Pentanthera (2 subsections)

This subgenus includes the majority of the larger evergreen rhododendrons widely grown as ornamental plants. Some species, notably Rhododendron ponticum, have escaped from cultivation and become invasive in some regions such as New Zealand.

Luisenstadt-Kirche

Die Luisenstadt-Kirche, auch Luisenstädtische Kirche oder Sebastian-Kirche war bis 1964 eine evangelische Kirche im Berliner Ortsteil Mitte.

Der Grundstein für die Kirche wurde am 27. August 1694 auf dem neuen Friedhof der St.-Petri-Gemeinde in Cölln gelegt. Grund hierfür war das stetige Wachstum der Doppelstadt Berlin-Cölln. Der Oberkirchenvorsteher Sebastian Nethe setzte sich für den Bau ein und so erhielt sie schließlich bei der Einweihung am 21. Juli 1695 durch Propst Lütkens den Namen Sebastiankirche. Die Kirche wurde ohne Vorwissen des Kurfürsten Friedrich III. mit lutherischen Zeremonien eingeweiht, was diesen zu der Drohung verleitete, dem Magistrat das Kirchenpatronat zu verweigern. Die Pläne für die barocke Fachwerkkirche mit ihrem kreuzförmigen Grundriss und einem hölzernen Turm erstelle Martin Grünberg.

Im Jahr 1707 erhielt die Kirche eine Schnitger-Orgel. Doch bereits rund 60 Jahre nach der Errichtung war das Bauwerk in einem maroden Zustand und konnte in den Jahren 1571 bis 1753 nur noch durch einen Neubau der Baumeister Christian August Naumann (um 1700–1757) und Johann Gottfried Büring ersetzt werden. Sie errichteten einen hochwassergeschützten Neubau auf einem Gewölbe mit 27 großen und kleinen Leichenkammern. Hier wurden in den nächsten Jahrzehnten unter anderem der preußische Jurist und Justizreformer Carl Gottlieb Svarez, der deutsche Komponist aus der Familie Bach, Wilhelm Friedemann Bach sowie der deutsche Schriftsteller Christoph Friedrich Nicolai beerdigt. Im Jahr 1785 änderte sich für zehn Jahre durch eine Ministerialverfügung der Name in Köllnische Vorstadtkirche. Zur 100-Jahr-Feier verfügte Friedrich Wilhelm II. eine Rückbenennung in Sebastiankirche. Er war es auch, der auf dem neuen Friedhof sowohl die Bestattung von Verstorbenen der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirchen wie auch von Reformierten erlaubte.

1802 baten die Bewohner des Köpenicker Viertels den König Friedrich Wilhelm III., ihr Gebiet zu Ehren seiner Gemahlin Luise in Luisenstadt umzubenennen. Dies führte dazu, dass auch das Gebäude nunmehr Luisenstädtische Kirche hieß. Wenige Jahre später wurde der Friedhof geschlossen. Er diente den Anwohnern seitdem als Erholungspark. Das Gebäude musste in den Jahren 1841 und 1842 durch den Bauinspektor Berger erneut instand gesetzt werden. Die Arbeiten erforderten erheblich finanzielle Mittel, so dass erst 1845 unter Mitarbeit von Friedrich August Stüler ein gotisierender Turm mit Uhr vollendet werden konnte. Weitere Umbauten fanden von 1936 bis 1940 statt, als die Heizung, Beleuchtung und Toiletten erneuert wurden.

Bei einem Bombenangriff am 3. Februar 1945 im Zweiten Weltkrieg wurde die Kirche zerstört. Über 50 Menschen, die im Kellergewölbe der Kirche Schutz gesucht hatten, verloren dabei ihr Leben. Nach der Teilung Berlins lag die Kirche in Ost-Berlin dicht an der Sektorengrenze. Nach dem Mauerbau sollte um die Ruine ein Drahtzaun errichtet und der Turm bis zur Höhe des Gesims abgetragen werden. Der Gemeinde fehlten die Mittel für die Umbauten; Gelder aus dem Westen wurden vom Ost-Berliner Magistrat abgelehnt. So wurde die Ruine am 29. Mai 1964 gesprengt, die Gräber eingeebnet.

Heute erinnert eine Hecke aus Liguster an den Grundriss der Kirche. Weiterhin setzte sich der Bürgerverein Luisenstadt e. V. dafür ein, dass 2002 eine Informationsstele des Bildhauers Nikolaus Bode auf dem parkähnlichen Gelände aufgestellt wurde. Sie zeigt auf einem Relief die Kirche und erinnert an die Grabstätten von Svarez, Bach und Nicolai. Die in der Nähe gelegene Sebastianstraße trägt in Anlehnung an die Kirche diese Bezeichnung.

Koordinaten:

Fenomeno dei calcinaroli

Fenomeno dei calcinaroli è un termine che sta ad indicare il fenomeno, tipico delle calce aerea, che si manifesta dopo lo „spegnimento“ della Calce Viva CaO (ossido di calcio). Il calcare (CaCO3) durante la cottura si dissocia secondo la reazione:

ovvero, si ottiene ossido di calcio (CaO, detta anche calce viva) e si libera anidride carbonica (CO2). La calce estratta dai forni di cottura può essere messa direttamente in commercio come calce viva in zolle. Più spesso viene trasformata in idrato (calce spenta) secondo la reazione esotermica:

ovvero, con l’aggiunta di acqua (H2O) all‘ossido di calcio (CaO) si ottiene un biidrossido di calcio (Ca(OH)2, detta anche calce spenta). Lo spegnimento può avvenire secondo 2 modalità:

Può capitare, però, che alcuni grumi di calce viva finiscano con lo spegnersi dopo l’impiego, producendo con il loro aumento di volume rigonfiamenti e disgregamenti, spesso circolari. Questo è il Fenomeno dei Calcinaroli e si presenta quando si usa grassello non invecchiato o calce idrata difettosa.

Una volta applicata la calce idrata, a contatto con l’aria si ha la reazione:

ovvero, la calce spenta (Ca(OH)2) a contatto con l‘anidride carbonica (CO2) riforma l’elemento iniziale, il calcare (CaCO3) e libera acqua (H2O).

Legge ex Cirielli

La legge 5 dicembre 2005, n. 251 (conosciuta come legge ex Cirielli) è una legge della Repubblica Italiana che dispone in tema di diritto penale.

Viene chiamata „ex Cirielli“ perché il suo primo firmatario, il deputato Edmondo Cirielli, dopo le modifiche apportate dal parlamento la sconfessò e votò contro, chiedendo successivamente che non venisse più chiamata con il suo nome.

La legge introdusse modifiche al codice penale italiano ed alla legge 26 luglio 1975, n. 354 in materia di attenuanti generiche, di recidiva, di giudizio di comparazione delle circostanze di reato per i recidivi, di usura e di prescrizione. In particolare, diminuiscono i termini di prescrizione ed aumentano le pene per i recidivi e per i delitti di associazione mafiosa ed usura. Si è disposto che la nuova disciplina non abbia effetto retroattivo, in maniera da non essere applicata ai processi in corso di dibattimento.

La norma modificò il calcolo della prescrizione dei reati. La previgente disciplina commisurava i termini prescrizionali in base a „scaglioni“ (esempio: la prescrizione è di 15 anni se per il delitto è stabilita la pena della reclusione non inferiore a 10 anni), la nuova legge invece fissa i termini di prescrizione rendendoli uguali al massimo della pena edittale prevista per il tipo di reato (esempio: la prescrizione per il delitto di ricettazione sarà di 8 anni visto che la pena massima prevista è di anni 8) mantenendo la prescrizione fissa in 4 anni per i reati contravvenzionali e in 6 anni per i delitti la cui pena sia non superiore a 6 anni oppure sia pecuniaria.

La legge prevede anche un diverso aumento del termine prescrizionale nel caso in cui si verifichi un atto interruttivo pari ad 1/4 della pena, sia nel caso di delitti che di reati contravvenzionali. Inoltre è previsto che la detenzione negli istituti carcerari per un ultrasettantenne sia commutata in arresti domiciliari «purché non sia stato dichiarato delinquente abituale, professionale o per tendenza, né sia stato mai condannato».

Un’applicazione della ex Cirielli la troviamo nelle vicende giudiziarie di Cesare Previti e Attilio Pacifico, riguardanti l’accusa di corruzione nell’ambito del processo IMI-SIR. Il 4 maggio 2006 Previti e Pacifico vengono condannati in via definitiva a 6 anni di detenzione.

Il giorno successivo, Previti si dimette dalla carica di parlamentare (almeno secondo quanto lui stesso afferma) e si presenta al carcere di Rebibbia, dove inizia a scontare la pena comminatagli. Il 10 maggio, cioè pochi giorni dopo, ottiene tuttavia gli arresti domiciliari ai sensi del comma 1 dell’articolo 47-ter della legge 26 luglio 1975 n. 354, modificato proprio dalla ex Cirielli qualche tempo prima, secondo il quale non è prevista la detenzione negli istituti carcerari per un ultrasettantenne «purché non sia stato dichiarato delinquente abituale, professionale o per tendenza, né sia stato mai condannato»; per questo motivo la ex Cirielli, approvata durante il Governo Berlusconi III, quando Previti era ancora deputato, è stata ribattezzata „legge salva-Previti„.

Un altro esempio di applicazione è nel processo Parmalat, in cui la società “Bank of America” viene prosciolta per prescrizione in accordo a quanto previsto dalla Cirielli.

Un caso meno illustre ma significativo riguarda la pena a tre anni di detenzione inflitta dal tribunale monocratico di Napoli ad una persona, già condannata per un altro reato simile compiuto in precedenza, riconosciuta colpevole di aver rubato in un discount un pacchetto di biscotti del valore di 1,29 euro. La sproporzione della sentenza deriva dalla ex Cirielli, che nega ai recidivi il riconoscimento di attenuanti quali il danno lieve. Ulteriore esempio ha riguardato il caso Mills per quanto riguarda i procedimenti giudiziari a carico di Silvio Berlusconi.

Il 2 febbraio 2012 il PM Fabio De Pasquale decide di portare il provvedimento di fronte alla Corte Costituzionale definendola incostituzionale.

La richiesta è stata formalizzata nel corso del processo a carico di sei manager del gruppo SNAM, imputati di corruzione internazionale per aver pagato mazzette in Nigeria per lo sfruttamento di un giacimento petrolifero. La quarta sezione del tribunale di Milano doveva dichiarare prescritti i reati, essendo passati sette anni e mezzo dalla commissione dei reati (con la precedente norma la prescrizione si sarebbe applicata nel 2019). Per De Pasquale e il suo collega, Sergio Spadaro, l’applicazione della Cirielli è in contrasto con le convenzioni internazionali dell’Ocse e con le sentenze della Corte per i diritti dell’uomo. „In questi anni – ha sostenuto il pm in aula – grazie a questa riforma del 2005 si è pianificata nei palazzi di giustizia una strategia del ritardo per impedire che i processi arrivassero a sentenza“.

Südfriedhof (Nürnberg)

Der Südfriedhof ist ein Friedhof in Nürnberg.

Der Südfriedhof befindet sich in den Stadtteilen Gartenstadt und Falkenheim. Er erstreckt sich westlich der Julius-Loßmann-Straße und nördlich der Trierer Straße. Im Norden wird er durch den Rangierbahnhof begrenzt.

1899 wurde die Schaffung eines zweiten Kommunalfriedhofs nach dem Westfriedhof angeregt. In einem Teil des 1905 nach Nürnberg eingemeindeten Waldgebiets wurde der Südfriedhof nach dem Vorbild des Münchener Waldfriedhofs angelegt. Er wurde am 1. September 1913 eröffnet. Deutlicher als am Westfriedhof, der enger belegt ist, wurde beim Südfriedhof der Parkcharakter gewahrt. Nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg wurde der Ehrenfriedhof eingegliedert. Der Südfriedhof wurde in der Folgezeit mehrfach erweitert und ist der größte Friedhof in Nürnberg.

Es gibt auf dem weitläufigen, parkähnlichen Gelände des Südfriedhofes insgesamt zehn Gräberfelder mit eigenen Gedenk- und Mahnmalen an die Opfer der beiden Weltkriege. Darunter befinden sich auch Sammel- und Massengräber mit bis zu 3500 gemeinsam Bestatteten.

Der Friedhof hat seit mehreren Jahren auch einen islamischen Teil, in dem u. a. alle Gräber nach Mekka ausgerichtet sind und steht auch ansonsten allen Ethnien und Weltbürgern zur letzten Ruhe offen.

Es bestehen in Nürnberg keine regionalen oder ethischen Verpflichtungen bspw. aus bestimmten Ortsteilen heraus den Süd-, West-, Ost-, Johannis-, Rochus- oder einen der anderen Friedhöfe zu bevorzugen oder zu meiden.

Im Südteil des Friedhofs, in der Nähe der Kriegsgräber und der Gräber derer, die bei dem verheerenden Bombenangriff vom 2. Januar 1945 ums Leben kamen, befinden sich zwei Türme, die aus Sandsteinquadern (die von der zerstörten Synagoge Nürnbergs stammen sollen) nebeneinander errichtet wurden. Am Fuß des Nordturms ist zu lesen:

AUFGERICHTET 1957–58

Am Südturm ist zu lesen:

ALS MAHNUNG UND ZUM GEDENKEN AN 6621 MÄNNER, FRAUEN UND KINDER, OPFER DES BOMBENKRIEGES UND DER KÄMPFE IN DER HEIMAT IN DEN JAHREN 1941–1945

Zwischen den beiden Türmen wurden drei Glocken an Holzjochen aufgehängt.

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Murder Most Foul

Murder Most Foul is the third of four Miss Marple films made by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Loosely based on the novel Mrs McGinty’s Dead by Agatha Christie, it stars Margaret Rutherford as Miss Jane Marple, Bud Tingwell as Inspector Craddock, and Stringer Davis (Rutherford’s real-life husband) as Mr Stringer. The story is ostensibly based on the original Christie story, but notably changes the action and characters. Hercule Poirot is replaced by Miss Marple and most other characters are not in the original story.

The film was released in 1964 and directed by George Pollock, with David Pursall credited with the adaptation. The music was by Ron Goodwin.

The title is a quote from Hamlet (I.v.27-28), where the Ghost comments about his own death, „Murder most foul as in the best it is/But this most foul, strange and unnatural.“

The third film in the MGM series, this was preceded by Murder, She Said and Murder at the Gallop, and followed by Murder Ahoy!, all with Rutherford starring as Christie’s famed amateur sleuth.

Margaret McGinty, a barmaid and former actress, is found hanged, and her lodger, Harold Taylor, caught at the scene, seems plainly guilty. Everyone believes it to be an open-and-shut case … except for Miss Marple. She is the lone holdout in the jury that tries him, leading to a mistrial.

Despite the disapproval of Inspector Craddock (Bud Tingwell), Miss Marple decides to delve into the case. She poses as a gatherer for a church ‚jumble sale‘ to enter and search Mrs. McGinty’s home. She finds a newspaper with words cut out and several programs for a murder mystery play, Murder She Said, recently performed in the town. These clues lead her to suspect Mrs. McGinty of having blackmailed a member of the repertory company.

She auditions for the repertory theatre players, the Cosgood Players, under their actor/manager Driffold Cosgood (Ron Moody). Cosgood is unimpressed by her acting ability, but as she is willing to work for free and mentions she is independently wealthy, takes her on. Miss Marple knows she is on the right track when actor George Rowton (Maurice Good) is poisoned moments later. She secures accommodation in the boarding house in which the cast are staying to further her investigation and Cosgood leaves a copy of his play Remember September in her bedroom to read. Narrowly avoiding an attempt to silence her (one which claims the life of another actress by mistake), Miss Marple unmasks the killer. Cosgood appeals to her to finance Remember September, but she says „Mr Cosgood, whatever else I am, I am definitely no angel.“

The theatre in which the Cosgood Players perform and where much of the action takes place was The Palace Theatre in Watford, Hertfordshire. At the time, it was being run by Jimmy Perry (creator of Dad’s Army, It Ain’t Half Hot Mum and Hi-De-Hi) and his wife Gilda.

The scene of the murder and associated village scenes were filmed in Sarratt, Hertfordshire.

The name of the first film in the series, Murder She Said, is also the title of the Cosgood Players production that appears on the playbills in the murder victims suitcase.

Marple performs a section of the poem The Shooting of Dan McGrew by Robert W. Service in the film.