James Fox (singer)

James Fox (born James Richard Mullett, 6 April 1976) is a Welsh pop singer, songwriter, pianist and guitarist. He represented the United Kingdom in the Eurovision Song Contest 2004 in Istanbul. In 2008 he wrote and recorded the Cardiff City F.C. FA Cup Final song, „Bluebirds Flying High“.

Fox was born in Cardiff and grew up in Gilfach, Bargoed, in the Rhymney Valley, a former mining community in south-east Wales. Inspired by his musician father, Richard, Fox took piano lessons from the age of six, and later taught himself to play guitar, the drums, harmonica and mandolin.

Fox is a passionate supporter of The Bluebirds, Cardiff City. He regularly turns out for The Bluebirds‘ charity teams, and played in both of the Legend Matches which marked the team’s last game at Ninian Park and first game at the Cardiff City stadium.

Fox’s professional musical career began at age 15, when along with elder brother Dean he toured the South Wales working man’s clubs circuit, in various Rock Bands, After leaving school, he worked for twelve years as a singer on cruise ships and in pubs and clubs, both under his real name and the stage name Nick James. During this period with his brother Dean he wrote his first song, „Miners‘ Town“, about Gilfach.

In 2000, he formed the boy band Force 5 with his friend Kevin Simm. They worked mainly on Blackpool’s Golden Mile, before breaking up when Simm joined Liberty X. Simm’s management company Hyperactive signed him as a solo artist, and also a backing singer and guitarist for other artists. He went on to support Liberty X, Ultra, Worlds Apart and Wet Wet Wet, and also undertook tours of entertainment for the Armed Forces in Bosnia, Afghanistan and the Falkland Islands.

In 2003, he took part in the BBC’s Fame Academy and took the stage name James Fox. He came fifth, but the experience presented him with new career opportunities.

Since then, Fox has represented Britain in the Eurovision Song Contest, toured the United States and United Kingdom with musical theatre and as a solo artist. He has also had two Top 20 hits, his Eurovision entry „Hold Onto Our Love“, and „Bluebirds Flying High“ in 2008.

Fox’s first notable solo achievement as a musical artist was representing the UK in the Eurovision Song Contest 2004 with the song „Hold Onto Our Love“ – which also featured his brother Dean on drums, It reached number 13 in the UK chart. He finished 16th out of 24 finalists with 29 points. Terry Wogan, Cheryl Baker, Fox and his mother all complained that the voting had been biased.

Following his performance of „Hold Onto Our Love“ on BBC’s Making Your Mind Up programme in April 2004, Fox was invited by Wayne David MP to sing the UK’s Eurovision entry live at the House of Commons, and also to perform at the Foreign & Commonwealth Office ‚Meet the Neighbours‘ Festival. He was also invited to sing live at the Welsh Assembly in Cardiff. He and his brother, accompanied by session musicians performed the song twice on Top of the Pops 30 April and 7 May.

In 2004, Fox went on to play Judas in the Bill Kenwright touring production of Jesus Christ Superstar to good reviews. Consequently, Tim Rice recommended him for the lead role in the Billy Joel/Twyla Tharp musical Movin‘ Out in America. Fox won the role, and made his début on Broadway on 6 April 2005. He later joined the North American touring production of Movin‘ Out.

In March 2006, Fox returned to the UK to take up the role of „Piano Man“ in the European première of Movin‘ Out in The West End at the Apollo Victoria Theatre.

Billy Joel said, via a live video link-up at the press launch at Ronnie Scott’s jazz club, „I’m particularly pleased that the incredibly talented James Fox will be returning to home turf; he has been wowing audiences here, and he’s going to continue to do so there.“

Between October 2006 and January 2007, Fox rejoined the American tour of Movin‘ Out, taking time off to return to the UK for a series of gigs. After this, he returned to the UK on a permanent basis.

In July 2010, Fox took the role of Freddie „The American“ Trumper in the 2010–2011 UK touring production of the Andersson/Rice/Ulveaus musical Chess, opening in Newcastle.

Fox has performed his original songs across the United Kingdom and the United States of America, including The Bedford at The Canal Room New York and The Regal Room in London, as well as in his home town.

He performed Stereophonics‘ „Have a Nice Day“ at the BBC Wales Children in Need charity concert in Merthyr Tydfil in 2004. In 2005, he co-hosted and performed at BBC Wales Children in Need „Party for Pudsey“ concert in Wrexham. In 2006, he performed Billy Joel’s „Movin‘ Out“ at the Breathing Life Awards for the Cystic Fibrosis Trust, which was also screened live on British television.

He has also supported a number of artists. These include Lulu, Wet Wet Wet, Natasha Bedingfield, Clare Teal, Honey Ryder and Will Young

On 18 May 2007, he performed at The Natural History Museum London as the support act for Tina Turner at the Bedrock Ball, a charity gala evening in aid of Cauldwell Children. The event marked Turner’s return to live performance after a seven-year absence.

He has performed live for British troops on active service in Afghanistan, Bosnia, The Falkland Islands and Iraq on more than 160 occasions since 2000, as well as undertaking many charity performances. In recognition of this, he was invited to perform twice at the Royal British Legion Remembrance Day Festival at the Royal Albert Hall, in the presence of the Queen.

On the first occasion, he also presented a film highlighting the work of the British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) for the Combined Services Entertainment (CSE) before singing Oasis‘ Don’t Look Back in Anger

On the second occasion, he performed Anthem and was joined by the Welsh soprano Katherine Jenkins for his last verse, and he also accompanied Chris de Burgh on electric guitar in the festival’s closing hymn.

In May 2010, Fox joined The Bonfires as keyboard player and backing vocalist. The band have performed at The Toybox, The Regal Room, The Bedford and the Isle of Wight Festival.

In April 2012, Fox Joined Tenors of Rock, a heavy metal band composed of seven musical theatre performers covering classic rock songs in a heavy metal-choral styling. On 28 June 2012, the group played a gig at The Scotch; it was to be the only gig Fox played with them, quitting in that July because of other work commitments.

On 29 September 2012 Fox took over the shared role of Paul McCartney in The Beatles tribute show Let it Be at The Prince of Wales Theatre in London’s West End. The show opened to mixed reviews.

On 24 October 2012, Fox formally launched his single „Landlocked“ with a live performance, its profits going to The Royal British legion’s annual Poppy Appeal. He was joined on stage by Jon Green on rhythm guitar at the Poppy Appeal Launch gig in Trafalgar Square.

In June 2013, Fox opened the Beatles themed tribute show Let It Be on Broadway. Fox was the poster boy, starting in the promotional video singing Let It Be in the style of Paul McCartney, and on sides of a New York City greyhound bus. Like the West End production the show opened to mixed reviews and closed six weeks into its proposed four-month run. Fox returned to the West End production before quitting in October 2013 after 12 months in the role to „Return to making my music, it’s been fun, but I want my life back.“

James returned to ‚Let it Be‘ in the West End in 2014, playing Paul McCartney until the run finished on 20 September 2014

In 2003, Fox duetted and played on the co-written track, „In Your Smile“ which appeared on Alistair Griffin’s début album Bring It On

In 2004, Fox recorded „Hold Onto Our Love“, „Needing You“ and „Something About Her“ which were released across two CD singles.

In 2005, Fox, with Katherine Jenkins, Andy Scott-Lee, Stuart Cable and a host of other Welsh celebrities, recorded a cover version of The Carpenters‘ „Close To You“ the promotional video for the song it was later used as an indent by BBC Wales before programmes

In 2007 he released Six String, a six-track EP of original songs.

He wrote „Bluebirds Flying High“ which became the official Cardiff City Football Club single for the 2008 FA Cup Final.

In 2008, „Higher“ the lead single from Fox’s debut album Rocking Chairs And Lemonade was released on his own Plastic Tomato label and on iTunes. The single later became snooker ace Mark Williams entrance music from the 2010 World Snooker Championship onwards. The album included the tracks from Six String, and five other original tunes.

Between October 2008 and January 2009, Fox co-wrote and recorded several tracks with Lucie Silvas for inclusion on her third studio album.

In 2009 he released Say What You Like on the Plastic Tomato label. In 2010 he recorded tracks released on sound cloud with The Bonfires. The following year, he re-recorded „Bluebirds Flying High“ to mark Cardiff City reaching the Championship Play-off final at Wembley.

In 2012 he started work on his third solo album Everything But Here, taking time out to record a track on a project playing tribute to the music of Progressive Rock legend Eric Woolfson

In 2012 Fox recorded the demo for the track ‚Fight The Fight‘ which was later recorded by Michael Ball.

in April Fox featured on a six track limited edition promo CD by The Tenors of Rock taking the lead vocals on three of the tracks

In June, he recorded „Landlocked“, written by Fox himself with Pete Hobbs and Sir Tim Rice. On 12 September Landlocked was announced as the Official Poppy Appeal Single for The Royal British Legion. On 21 October, „Landlocked“ was released and Fox formally launched the track with a live performance joined by Jon Green on rhythm guitar at the Poppy Appeal Launch in Trafalgar Square on 24 October.

In 2013, Fox recorded and posted on YouTube a demo version of the track he’d written to celebrate Cardiff City FC’s promotion to The English Premier League after a gap of 51 years. ‚Back Where We Belong‘

One track by Fox appeared on each of the official Fame Academy compilation albums, Fame Academy: Bee Gees Special (Polydor, August 2003) and Fame Academy – The Finalists (Polydor, October 2003).

Tracks by Fox also appeared on The Ultimate Eurovision Party (May 2008).

„Hold Onto Our Love“, the official UK Eurovision entry for 2004, was released as a CD single in April 2004 on the Sony label. It reached No. 13 in the UK Singles Chart and No. 7 in the Welsh music charts. The single also contained the original tracks „Needing You“ and „Something About Her“.

„Bluebirds Flying High“, the official FA Cup final song of Cardiff City F.C. was released on 5 May 2008 on the Plastic Tomato label and iTunes. The single attained the number one spot in the UK national indie singles chart and the Welsh singles chart.

„Higher“ written by Fox, Mads Hauge and Phil Thornalley was released on 22 October 2008, as the lead single from the album Rocking Chairs and Lemonade.

„Say What You Like“, the second single from Rocking Chairs and Lemonade, was released on 27 April 2009. The single reached number No. 16 in the UK national indie singles chart. „Bluebirds Flying High“ (playoff final remix) was released on 17 May 2010 as a free download.

„Landlocked“ co-written by Fox with Sir Tim Rice became Official 2012 Poppy Appeal Single for The Royal British Legion released on 21 October 2012.

In December 2007 a six track CD of original songs entitled Six String (iTunes) was released independently by Plastic Tomato.

Rocking Chairs And Lemonade was released via iTunes and on CD on 10 November 2008. It included the six tracks from Six String plus five other tracks. As well as songwriting, Fox played most of the instruments including guitar, piano, synthesiser, mandolin, bass, harmonica and drums. The album received good reviews and being compared to Take That and The Killers.

In June 2012 TOR by ‚Tenors of Rock‘ was given a limited release, packaged as a collectors edition promo CD, Fox sang lead on three of the tracks; Sweet Prayer of Mine, Tears in Heaven and Desperado.

Seehafen Rostock

Seehafen Rostock ist der Titel zweier Briefmarkenausgaben, die 1958 und 1960 von der Deutschen Post (DDR) ausgegeben wurden. Gewürdigt wurden der Bau und die Inbetriebnahme des Rostocker Seehafens. Der abgebildete Frachter Dresden liegt heute als Museumsschiff in Rostock.

Alle Marken wurden von Axel Bengs entworfen.


Jahrgänge der Deutschen Post der DDR:
1949 | 1950 | 1951 | 1952 | 1953 | 1954 | 1955 | 1956 | 1957 | 1958 | 1959 | 1960 | 1961 | 1962 | 1963 | 1964 | 1965 | 1966 | 1967 | 1968 | 1969 | 1970 | 1971 | 1972 | 1973 | 1974 | 1975 | 1976 | 1977 | 1978 | 1979 | 1980 | 1981 | 1982 | 1983 | 1984 | 1985 | 1986 | 1987 | 1988 | 1989 | 1990

Präsident Wilhelm Pieck (1950–1958) | Persönlichkeiten aus Politik, Kunst und Wissenschaft (1952–1953) | Fünfjahrplan (1953–1959) | Staatsratsvorsitzender Walter Ulbricht (1961–1971) | Aufbau in der DDR (1973–1981) | Bauwerke und Denkmäler (1990)

Sondermarkenserien: (nach Michel-Katalog)
Von der UdSSR zurückgeführte Gemälde der Dresdner Gemäldegalerie (1955–1959) | Seehafen Rostock (1958, 1960)  | Von der Sowjetunion zurückgeführte antike Kunstschätze (1958, 1959) | Geschützte Tiere (1962, 1963) | Internationale Mahn- und Gedenkstätten (1963–1989) | Volkstrachten (1964–1968) | Geschützte heimische Pflanzen (1966–1970) | Plauener Spitze (1966, 1974) | Sicherheit im Straßenverkehr (1966–1975) | Märchenmotive (1966–1985) | Unbesiegbares Vietnam (1966–1979) | Bedeutende Bauwerke (1967–1969) | Berühmte Persönlichkeiten (1967–1972) | Flugzeuge (1969, 1972) | Minerale aus den Sammlungen der Bergakademie Freiberg (1969–1974) | Kakteen (1970–1983) | Bedeutende Persönlichkeiten (1973–1990) | Persönlichkeiten der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung (1973–1990) | Leuchttürme, Leit-, Leucht- und Molenfeuer (1974, 1975) | Fachwerkbauten in der DDR (1978, 1981) | Zirkuskunst in der DDR (1978, 1985) | Meißner Porzellan (1979–1989) | Historisches Spielzeug (1980–1982) | Schmalspurbahnen in der DDR (1980–1984) | Vom Aussterben bedrohte Tiere (1980–1987) | Technische Denkmale (1981–1988) | 500. Geburtstag von Martin Luther (1982, 1983) | Burgen (1984, 1985) | Historische Siegel (1984, 1988) | 750 Jahre Berlin (1986, 1987) | Historische Denkmale: Rolandsäulen (1987, 1989)

Tag der Briefmarke (1949–1990) | Briefmarkenblocks (1950–1990) | Leipziger Messe (1950–1990) | Radsport (1952–1990) | Aufbau und Erhaltung der Nationalen Mahn- und Gedenkstätten (1955–1964) | Exponate von Museen in Dresden (1955–1984) | Olympische Spiele (1956–1988) | Solidarität (1956–1989) | Raumfahrt (1957–1990) | Internationale Gartenbauausstellung (1961–1979) | Kleinbogen (1962–1990)

Weitere Besonderheiten:
Sammlerausweis | Sperrwert | Tauschkontrollmarke


Pitkävuori er et skihoppanlegg i Kaipola ved Jämsä i Finland. Anlegget består av fem hoppbakker med størrelse K100, K55, K25, K15 og K8. Den største bakken ble bygd i 1964. Den har i dag utdatert bakkeprofil, og har ikke vært i bruk siden 1994.

Bakkerekorden i K100-bakken er 111 meter, satt av Pasi og Toni Nieminen i 1994. I K55 og K25 er rekorden henholdsvis 61 meter (satt av Joonas Asala) og 35 meter (satt av Eric Savolainen).

I 1986 laget Audi en reklamefilm i storbakken i Pitkävuori. Rallykjører Harald Demuth kjørte en Audi 100 CS quattro fra hoppet og opp til toppen av det 37,5 grader bratte ovarennet. En ny reklamefilm ble laget samme sted i 2005 for å markere at det var 25 år siden Audi Quattro ble introdusert. Da kjørte Uwe Bleck en Audi A6 4.2 quattro opp ovarennet. Før denne filmen kunne lages, måtte den delvis forfalne hoppbakken repareres. Blant annet ble ovarennet av tre forsterket.

Den norske hopperen Torgeir Brandtzæg falt og skadet seg så stygt i et renn i storbakken i Pitkävuori 24. mars 1965 at han fikk varige mén og aldri kom tilbake som skihopper.

Det var planlagt å renovere dommertårnet i Pitkävuori, men det brant 8. oktober 2009.


Пирс, Маккензи

April Roe

10 марта 1988(1988-03-10) (28 лет)

Чендлер (Аризона), Аризона, США




170 см

59 кг


4 размер Силиконовая

ID 2518985

Маккензи Пирс (англ. Mackenzee Pierce; род. 10 марта 1988 года, Чендлер (Аризона), Аризона, США) — американская модель и порноактриса.

О карьере в порноиндустрии Маккензи Пирс мечтала ещё в 16 лет, а после совершеннолетия активно приступила к реализации своей мечты.

Карьеру в порно начала в 2007 году, когда ей исполнилось 19 лет. Её первый фильм назывался No Swallowing Allowed #11. Принимает участие в порнороликах разных жанров: лесби, анального, группового. Работает с такими студиями как: Brazzers, Private, Digital Sin, Anabolic Video, Red Light District, Penthouse, Jules Jordan Video, New Sensations и др. Снялась более чем в 100 фильмах и сценах.


Apaharan (English: „Abduction“) is a 2005 Indian Hindi crime drama film directed by Prakash Jha and stars Ajay Devgan and Nana Patekar in the lead roles. It is the story of a complex relationship and clashing ideologies between a father and son set in the backdrop of the kidnapping industry in the eastern state of Bihar, India. Apaharan was declared Above Average at the Indian box-office.[by whom?]

Ajay Shastri (Ajay Devgan) is an unemployed, honest graduate who dreams of joining the police force. His father, Raghuvansh Shastri (Mohan Agashe) is a highly principled and moralistic man. An ex-schoolteacher and Gandhi follower, now a social activist, Prof. Shastri expects his son to follow in his steps and believe in his ideals and values. When his father’s ideals start clashing with Ajay’s ideologies, a rift between father and son emerges.

Ajay borrows a lot of money, with the help of his friend (Ayub Khan) and bribes higher officials to get his name on the police force merit list. When Ajay’s father discloses the corruption scandal to the media, things go awry, and left with pressure from his creditors, Ajay and his friend decide to kidnap a government official to repay the amount.

The kidnapping goes wrong at the last minute. It turns out that the victim is under protection of Gaya Singh (Yashpal Sharma), one of Tabrez Alam’s (Nana Patekar) henchmen. Tabrez Alam is a powerful MLA and influential Muslim party leader, who is also an underworld don and controller of a large kidnapping racket.

Ajay and his friends are brought to jail. Gaya Singh and his men assault and humiliate Ajay and his friends, for meddling in their racket. Ajay pleads with the DSP, Shukla, to save him, who has recently developed strained relations with Gaya Singh due to severe conflict of opinions. DSP Shukla helps Ajay and his friends escape jail.

Ajay then kidnaps Sooraj Mal, one of the leading businessman and a rising figure in local politics, who was for long, a target of Tabrez Alam and Gaya Singh, but neither could do the job because of the high security provided to him. Gaya Singh goes frantic upon learning about the kidnapping and is on the lookout of killer. DSP Shukla and Ajay join forces and lure Gaya Singh into a trap. Gaya Singh heads to a location where Ajay is told to be hiding. Gaya Singh soon learns that he has been trapped and Ajay kills him after a brief fight. He surrenders himself to Tabrez, and requests him to recruit him into his gang. Tabrez sees potential in Ajay and allows him to be a part of his gang. Ajay starts working hard and rapidly rises in the ranks of Tabrez’s empire. He takes Ajay in and places him higher than his own brother Usmaan (Mukul Nag), with an ulterior motive. Swimming in power, Ajay becomes the state’s most powerful gangster and, under Tabrez’s authority, the head of Bihar’s most successful kidnapping trade, which Ajay consolidates by killing smaller players and removing all competitors.

The state’s home minister’s wife is caught on camera taking money and the scandal becomes the hottest news. The home minister offers Ajay to leave Tabrez Alam and join forces with him. He then provides the taped conversation between him and Ajay (which he surreptitiously records) to Tabrez to create differences between them. Meanwhile, news correspondent Akash Ranjan calls a press conference to clarify the scandal involving the home minister inviting a discussion. Tabrez sends Ajay to kill Akash so that he would bring a no-confidence motion against the government, bringing its fall. He would come to power by taking advantage of the political instability. Ajay is contacted by SP Anwar Khan who makes him aware of Tabrez’s real motive. Ajay reaches the press conference venue only to find out that the real person behind the ongoing debate of bribery scandal is his father. He leaves without killing Akash Ranjan and is confronted by DSP Shukla, who is sent by Tabrez Alam to kill Ajay, but Ajay manages to kill Shukla and escape.

Ajay surrenders himself to SP Khan and gives his statement revealing everything about Tabrez Alam’s illegal activities. This report is presented to the home minister by the commissioner of police citing Tabrez Alam’s arrest warrant. The home minister makes a deal with Tabrez Alam, to destroy the evidence against him in exchange for money and power, and both join hands to form new government in the state with the help of their respective MLA support. SP Khan is sorry for Ajay as all his efforts are ruined by the political upheaval. Ajay goes home one last time with the help from SP Khan where he watches his father reminiscing about him and make amends with him after knowing how much he loved him. He goes back to prison where Tabrez comes to meet him after becoming the new home minister of the state. He gloats in front of Ajay at the jail. Ajay suddenly takes out his pistol and guns down Tabrez. Upon hearing then gunshots, Tabrez’s men enter the room and shoot Ajay, bringing an end to their lives.

Composer: Aadesh Shrivastav

Apaharan grossed 80,826,121 at Indian box-office till 10 weeks of theatrical run

Filmfare Awards

Radha Krishna Mainali

Radha Krishna Mainali (born September 26, 1946 in Chokpur, Taplejung District) is a Nepalese politician. In the early 1970s he was one (along with his brother, C.P. Mainali) of the radical communists who led the Jhapa rebellion, inspired by the Naxalite movement in India.

R.K. Mainali was imprisoned in 1973, and was not released until 1986. After his release he argued that the communists should formed broadbased movements for democratic change. By this time he was a leading member of the Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist-Leninist). He was a prominent leader of the 1990 Jana Andolan as the Acting Chairman of the United Left Front, and was one of four Jana Andolan leaders to appear on national TV on April 8, 1990 to declare that the movement for democracy had been victorious.

He later became a leading figure in the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist) (which the CPN(ML) had merged into). R.K. Mainali contested the Jhapa-5 constituency in the 1994 parliamentary election. He won the seat with 16,361 votes, defeating the Nepali Congress candidate Surya Narayan Tajpuriya. After the election he became Minister for Agriculture, Land Reforms and Management in the CPN(UML) minority government headed by Man Mohan Adhikari. Mainali was Minister of Health in the coalition government led by Lokendra Bahadur Chand between March 12, 1997, and October 6, 1997.

In 1998 he took part in a split and the formation of the Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist-Leninist). He became a politburo member of the new CPN(ML). He was a candidate of CPN(ML) in the 1999 parliamentary election, but lost his seat.

In 2002, when CPN(UML) and CPN(ML) reunified, Mainali returned to CPN(UML), and became a member of the party’s Standing Committee. However, in July 2003 his party membership was suspended due to his disagreements with the party. Mainali had criticized the tactics of the party and advocated rapprochement with King Gyanedra.

After the royal coup on February 1, 2005, R.K. Mainali sided with the monarch and became Minister for Education & Sports in his cabinet. Following the overthrow of the royal cabinet in April 2006, Mainali has denied responsibility for the repression unleashed on protestors during the popular upsurge in that year (Loktantra Andolan). In September 2010, Mainali joined the Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist).

Finnish-Swedish ice class

The Finnish-Swedish ice class is an ice class assigned to a vessel operating in first-year ice in the Baltic Sea and calling Finnish or Swedish ports. Ships are divided into six ice classes based on requirements for hull structural design, engine output and performance in ice according to the regulations issued by the Finnish Transport Safety Agency (TraFi), which overtook the responsibilities of the Finnish Maritime Administration in 2010, and the Swedish Maritime Administration.

Traffic restrictions in the Baltic Sea during winter months are based on the Finnish-Swedish ice classes. These restrictions, imposed by the local maritime administrations, declare the minimum requirements for ships that are given icebreaker assistance, for example „ice class 1A, 2000 DWT“. Finnish fairway dues, a system of fees charged for the use of sea lanes to cover the costs of management and icebreaker assistance, also depend on the vessels‘ ice class. Since ships of lower ice classes generally require more assistance during the winter months, their fairway dues are considerably higher than those of ships of the highest ice classes. For this reason the majority of ships regularly calling Finnish ports are built to the highest ice classes. In the beginning of 2008, 47% of the Finnish tonnage were of ice class 1A Super.

Many international classification societies have incorporated the Finnish-Swedish ice class rules to their own rulebooks and offer ice class notations that are recognized by the Finnish and Swedish authorities. These ice classes are, in turn, used by nations such as Estonia and Latvia to assign traffic restrictions. Since the ice class rules have been revised and amended several times over the years, a list of equivalent ice class notations is used to assign the correct official ice class for older vessels when they visit Finnish and Swedish ports. Although mainly used in the Baltic Sea, the Finnish-Swedish ice classes and the equivalent ice class notations from classification societies are sometimes used when discussing ships operating in other ice-infested seas of the world.

While the Finnish-Swedish ice classes can be assigned to icebreakers for the purpose of collecting fairway fees, the rules are intended primarily for merchant ships operating under icebreaker escort. Because the engine output and the level of ice-strengthening in ships designed to operate independently in ice-infested waters, especially in the presence of multi-year ice, usually exceeds the requirements of the Finnish-Swedish ice class rules, the classification societies use different ice class notations, such as the IACS Polar Class, for icebreakers. The two highest Finnish-Swedish ice classes, 1A and 1A Super, are somewhat equivalent to the two lowest Polar Classes, PC 7 and PC 6, respectively.

Ships of the highest Finnish-Swedish ice class, 1A Super, are designed to operate in difficult ice conditions mainly without icebreaker assistance while ships of lower ice classes 1A, 1B and 1C are assumed to rely on icebreaker assistance. However, even ships of the highest ice class are assumed to require icebreaker assistance from time to time. In addition there are ice class 2 for self-propelled steel-hulled ships with no ice strengthening that are capable of operating independently in very light ice conditions and class 3 for vessels that do not belong to any other class such as unpropelled barges and ships built of wood. The Finnish-Swedish ice classes are usually spelled with Roman numerals in official context and legislation.

Ships must fulfill certain design requirements in order to obtain the ice class from the Finnish and Swedish authorities. The design requirement for ice class 1A Super is a minimum speed of 5 knots in a broken brash ice channel with a thickness of 1.0 metre (3.3 ft) in the middle and a consolidated (refrozen) ice layer of 0.1 metres (3.9 in). Ice classes 1A, 1B and 1C have lower design requirements corresponding to non-consolidated ice channels with a thickness of 1.0, 0.8 and 0.6 metres (3.3, 2.6 and 2.0 ft) in the middle, respectively. While the ice class rules provide equations to calculate the minimum engine power based on the ship’s main dimensions and hull shape, more exact calculations or ice model tests resulting in lower minimum engine power can also be approved, but in such case the ice class can be revoked if the experience of the ship’s performance in practice motivates this. In addition, the ice strengthening of the ship’s hull must be adequate to allow safe operation in the presence of ice with a thickness of 1.0 m (3.3 ft) for ice class 1A Super, 0.8 m (2.6 ft) for 1A, 0.6 m (2.0 ft) for 1B and 0.4 m (1.3 ft) for 1C. This requirement is sometimes mistaken for the minimum required icebreaking capability of the vessel. The rules provide tables and formulas to determine the minimum scantlings of the hull for each ice class.

Since even ships of ice class 1A Super are assumed to rely on icebreaker assistance from time to time, a research was conducted recently about introducing a new ice class exceeding all existing ice classes, 1A Super+, for ships capable of independent operation in all ice conditions and therefore reducing the need of icebreaker assistance in some ports. These ships could also be granted „icebreaker status“ and their higher operating costs could be partially covered by government subsidies from the same funds that are used to cover the cost of icebreaker assistance. As of 2013 the new ice class has not been implemented in the Finnish-Swedish ice class rules.

The first Finnish statutory regulation for ships navigating in ice was given on 27 March 1890. It was primarily intended to increase the safety and set a number of requirements for passenger ships operating regularly in winter conditions. These included double bottom in way of the engines and boilers, construction according to the rules of Lloyd’s Register or Bureau Veritas, at least five transverse watertight bulkheads, and sufficient damage stability to survive the flooding of two compartments without sinking. The last requirement is interesting because it was not included in the latter ice class rules and did not become mandatory again for ships partaking in international traffic until 1960.

The first Finnish ice class rules that included the fairway fees were published in 1920. According to the rules the ships were to pay „ice fees“ according to their net register tonnage, classification and strengthening for navigation in ice during the winter season, which began on 1 December and ended on 16 April in the Gulf of Finland and in the Bothnian Sea, and from 1 November until 1 May in the northern parts of the Gulf of Bothnia. In 1923 a circular about the classification of ice-strengthened ships was sent to the largest classification societies. The ice strengthening of the hull was defined as a percentage that was added to the minimum requirements set by the classification societies, such as 45% increase in shell plating thickness.

The Finnish ice class rules published in 1932 introduced the ice classes 1A, 1B and 1C for ships strengthened for navigation in ice, ice class 2 for ships classified for unrestricted service but not strengthened for navigation in ice and ice class 3 for other vessels. Ice class 2 was further divided to two subclasses, 2A and 2B, and vessels were eligible for the former if they had a radio. Detailed minimum requirements, again as an additional percentage of the open water requirement, were given for the stem, shell plating at the waterline, stiffeners, rudder and rudder bearings, and the propulsion machinery. In the lowest ice class, 1C, the requirements were limited to the bow of the vessel.

The Finnish ice class rules of 1960 included only minor modifications to the existing rules. The subdivision of ice class 2 was abolished as radios had become more common.

In the 1960s the expansion of the Finnish icebreaker fleet allowed navigation in more severe ice conditions, and the Finnish ice class rules published in 1965 introduced a new ice class, 1A Super, which was considerably stronger than the existing classes. Since ice class 1A was already exempted from the ice fees, the 50% reduction to lighthouse fees was given to ships of the new ice class. However, the additional requirements of the highest ice class were deemed excessive and only three such ships were built.

In 1970 a workgroup consisting of the Finnish Maritime Administration, Wärtsilä Helsinki Shipyard and the association of the Finnish shipowners began working on the new ice class rules in close co-operation with major classification societies. Shortly after the work started the Swedish Maritime Administration joined and the new regulations, published in 1971, became known as the Finnish-Swedish ice class rules. According to the new rules the requirements for a ship with ice class 1A, deadweight tonnage of 3,500 tons and engine output of 1,500 hp were kept largely the same, but the requirements for ships of the lowest ice class, 1C, were increased considerably as in the past such ships had been essentially open-water vessels with a strengthened bow. The minimum requirements for the highest ice class, 1A Super, were lowered to make the ships more attractive to shipowners and the requirements for ships with deadweight tonnage below 3,500 tons were increased in all classes to steer shipowners towards bigger vessels that were deemed better for navigation in ice.

However, the biggest change to the previous Finnish ice class rules was the way the structural requirements were determined. Instead of percentages and experience the minimum requirements were based on plastic deformation theory and pressure loads determined from observations of past ice damages in the Baltic Sea. The ships were divided into three areas (bow, midship, aft) and the pressure loads were calculated for each area as a function of the ship’s displacement and engine output. The rules regarding rudders, engines and the propulsion system were also changed accordingly, and the propulsion system was to be designed so that its strength increased towards the engine. This minimized the repair costs as the parts most likely to break, the propeller blades, were also the easiest and cheapest to replace. Furthermore, a minimum power requirement was given so that the ice-strengthened ships would be powerful enough to follow the icebreakers and not slow down the traffic.

The Finnish-Swedish ice class rules of 1985 introduced changes to the hull dimensioning. The plastic deformation theory used in the previous rules was changed to elastic, and the load height was changed to more realistic. The minimum engine power requirements were changed in 2002 to correspond to the resistance of the ship in a brash ice channel, calculated as a function of ship size and hull geometry. In 2008 the rules regarding the dimensioning of the propulsion system were renewed.

The current Finnish-Swedish ice class rules were issued in 2010 and apply for ships contracted for construction on or after 1 January 2012. The new regulations also include provisions to determine which ice class rules apply to a ship built prior to this date and when they are required to comply with the new rules.

Confessions of a Republican

Confessions of a Republican“ was a political advertisement aired on television during the 1964 United States presidential election by incumbent president Lyndon B. Johnson’s campaign.

In the advertisement, a jittery man in his late twenties speaks to the camera about his pride in the Republican Party’s past, before admitting that he is frightened by Republican nominee Barry Goldwater. He expresses alarm at Goldwater’s contradictory, confrontational political views and support from the Ku Klux Klan (the result of his opposition to the Civil Rights Act of 1964) and says that he is afraid of Goldwater’s instability and aggressive approach, and fears that it might lead to a nuclear war with the U.S.S.R.. He explains that he believes that the party is making a great mistake, and that he will be voting for Johnson in the election.

The four-minute ad was produced by DDB in July 1964. It was a requirement of the casting that actor William Bogert be a Republican. While Bogert was performing a script rather than expressing his own views and is not presented by name, he has described the ad as similar to his own viewpoint and said that he was allowed to improvise somewhat to include his own thoughts on the election.

Though less well-remembered than Johnson’s Daisy ad (also suggesting that Goldwater might start a nuclear war), it ran in the North and was intended to develop fears about Barry Goldwater and his supporters, such as the then head of the Ku Klux Klan.

The Museum of the Moving Image report on the ad notes that DDB received the contract after Kennedy had been impressed by their quirky advertising for Volkswagen (the Think Small campaign) and for Avis. A DDB spokesman reportedly told Johnson’s advisers that „We are deadly afraid of Goldwater and feel that the world must be handed a Johnson landslide.“

Bogert was interviewed about the ad in 2014, saying that he believed that Tea Party activists had many undesirable attributes in common with Goldwater, and that he had not voted Republican for a long time. The advertisement was the subject of renewed attention in March 2016 because of Donald Trump’s success in Republican primaries. Bogert, now 80 years of age, was interviewed again on The Rachel Maddow Show on May 2, 2016 and asked to draw comparisons between Goldwater’s 1964 policy stances and Donald Trump’s 2016 politics. He appeared in a remake of the advertisement produced by the Hillary Clinton campaign in July 2016 with alterations based on Trump’s public statements on nuclear warfare.


Bellefield, in West Derby, Liverpool, is Everton FC’s former training ground.

Bellefield had been Everton FC’s training ground since 1946. It was purchased in 1965 from landowner Mr Tyson and Everton developed it so it was ready by summer of 1966. On 12 July 1966 it was officially opened by Mr J Richards, the president of the Football League.

At the time it was so advanced that the Brazilian national football team used it as a training base in the 1966 World Cup. The Brazilian Football Association was said to be so impressed with the facilities on offer that they took photographs to inspire clubs in Brazil.[citation needed]

On Tuesday, 9 October 2007, Bellefield training ground played host to its last ever senior first team training session. Everton FC moved to Finch Farm in Halewood a day later.

Speaking of the closure of Bellefield, Everton captain Alan Stubbs said:

„It is a really sad day. This place has graced some unbelievable players. I am not in that category. There have been some fantastic players that have played here. There have been players here that come here and it’s been a privilege to have played in the surroundings that they have played in. It is a sad sad day to see the back of Bellefield.

Having vacated Bellefield to the new training ground, Everton’s plans were to have the Bellefield estate redeveloped for housing, which would in turn contribute financially to a proposed new club stadium. As reported in the Liverpool Daily Post on 11 June 2008 Liverpool councillors rejected Everton’s plans.

Carré Sator

Le carré Sator est un carré magique contenant le palindrome latin SATOR AREPO TENET OPERA ROTAS.

Le carré figure dans plusieurs inscriptions latines, la plus ancienne connue qui a été trouvée à Pompéi ne pouvant être postérieure à l’an 79.

Les lettres de la phrase sont inscrites dans un carré de 5 cases sur 5 de telle façon qu’elle puisse être lue de haut en bas, de bas en haut, de gauche à droite et de droite à gauche :

ou en sens inverse :

La lecture est rendue possible horizontalement et verticalement parce que chacun des termes de la phrase est un acrostiche, un mésostiche ou un téléstiche de l’ensemble des cinq mots.

Il faut noter que le changement de l’ordre de lecture n’altère en aucun cas le sens de la phrase du point de vue grammatical latin. En d’autres termes, si la place des mots n’est pas la même, la signification est identique.

Le carré peut également être lu en boustrophédon, à nouveau sans altérer la signification du carré.

Le carré est composé des cinq mots suivants :

Le mot Arepo est un hapax : il n’apparaît nulle part ailleurs dans la littérature latine. Il est probable qu’il s’agisse d’un nom propre, éventuellement inventé pour faire fonctionner le palindrome. Sa similitude avec arrepo, venant de ad repo, « je rampe vers », est probablement une coïncidence.

La traduction la plus probable est : « Le laboureur Arepo utilise les roues (c’est-à-dire une charrue) comme forme de travail. » Est également possible : « Le semeur tient avec soin les roues (de sa charrue). » Une autre cependant, plus proche de la mystique du carré magique, surtout si on la rapproche des premiers chrétiens, pourrait être, si l’on tient compte de la similitude entre arepo et arrepo — qui signifie également et entre autres « être terre à terre » (selon dictionnaire Gaffiot) — : « le créateur, par son caractère terre à terre, maintient l’œuvre de rotation ». Moult interprétations sont possibles si l’on sort du strict contexte « laboureur » et « roue ». Comme c’est un carré magique, il y a autant d’interprétations que de sens de lecture, ce que la langue latine favorise naturellement.

Si la phrase est lue en boustrophédon, la place des mots change mais la traduction reste la même, car l’ordre des mots dans la phrase est très libre en latin. Néanmoins, la place des mots indique les accents mis sur l’importance de tel ou tel mot. Sator étant le premier mot, cela indique que celui-ci est essentiel ; de même que tenet, vu la place centrale, et que rotas, puisque c’est le dernier mot qui reste en mémoire.

Le plus ancien carré connu se trouve dans les ruines de Pompéi où il fut enfoui en 79. D’autres ont été trouvés dans des excavations à Corinium (actuelle Cirencester en Angleterre ; le texte est ROTAS OPERA TENET AREPO SATOR), Doura Europos (actuelle Syrie) ou au musée de Conimbriga au Portugal. Le carré existe également sur un mur d’Oppède le Vieux en France, à Manchester en Angleterre, sur le mur de la cathédrale de Sienne ou dans une inscription en marbre à l’abbaye de San Pietro ad Oratorium près de Capestrano en Italie, entre autres. Dans un cas découvert à l’abbaye de Valvisciolo, également en Italie, les lettres forment cinq anneaux concentriques, chacun divisé en cinq secteurs. Il en existe un exemplaire sur le mur d’une maison de Valbonnais dans l’Isère, ainsi que sur une porte fort ancienne de la rue Jean-Jacques Rousseau à Grenoble, et au Château de Bonaguil à St Front sur Lémance dans le Lot et Garonne.

Jérôme Carcopino publia dans „Le christianisme secret du carré magique“, repris dans „Etudes d’Histoire Chrétienne“ (Albin Michel 1953) une étude critique du carré et des interprétations connues jusque là.

F. Grosser interpréta le carré comme un signe de reconnaissance utilisé par les premiers chrétiens afin de se reconnaître entre eux sans pour autant se montrer à la vue de tous par crainte des persécutions. Grosser faisait la lecture suivante : les lettres de ce carré constituent une anagramme, qui, disposé en croix, donne deux fois : Pater noster, auquel on ajoute deux fois les lettres « A » et « O ». Ces dernières pouvant représenter « l’Alpha et l’Oméga » cité dans l’apocalypse de saint Jean : « Je suis l’Alpha et l’Oméga, le commencement et la fin. » Par ailleurs, TENET forme une image de croix, ce que suggère en plus la forme du T. L’archéologue Amedeo Maiuri en déduisit la présence d’une communauté chrétienne à Pompéi. Des anachronismes présumés réfutent cette théorie : les chrétiens du Ier siècle prieraient en grec et les symboles du Tau, de l’alpha et de l’oméga seraient postérieurs à la destruction de Pompéi en 79.

Le carré à Cirencester.

Le carré à San Pietro ad Oratorium.

La phrase à Campiglia Marittima.

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